Although only national governments are directly involved in the negotiations, COP 21 has provided many opportunities to showcase the contributions of “non-state actors” to global climate efforts. The strong presentation of commitments made by cities, sub-national governments and businesses at the New York climate summit in September 2014 led to the implementation of the Lima-Paris action agenda at COP 20 and the online portal “Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action” (NAZCA), which allows non-state actors to register their commitments. Until Paris, the portal listed nearly 11,000 commitments from 2,250 cities, 22,025 companies and hundreds of states/regions, investors and civil society organizations. Unprecedented action and support at all levels of society have been widely recognized as an important factor in the success of Paris. Governments and stakeholders are working to strengthen non-governmental contributions to the UNFCCC. President Trump is pulling us out of the Paris climate agreement. Acts of “adoption” or “approval” of an agreement have the same legal effect as ratification and, therefore, express a country`s agreement to be bound by an agreement. On the basis of their national constitutions, some countries accept or approve an agreement instead of ratifying it. InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries.
As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. National communication reports are often several hundred pages long and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties.